Event Date: Tuesday, May 7, 2013, at noon EDT / 9 am PDT / 4 pm GMT
This was an online, text-based debate on whether ocean zoning must be included as part of a marine spatial planning (MSP) process for that MSP to be effective.
- Charles “Bud” Ehler argued that ocean zoning can be an effective tool to implement MSP (similar to the traditional relationship of comprehensive planning and zoning on land), but that we already do too much ocean zoning without comprehensive marine planning. Bud is president of Ocean Visions and co-author (with Fanny Douvere) of the guide Marine Spatial Planning: a step-by-step approach toward Ecosystem-based Management (UNESCO, 2009).
- Tundi Agardy argued that marine spatial planning without ocean zoning is ultimately toothless. Reviewing the myriad MSP and other maritime planning activities taking place around the world, Tundi finds that MSP is very front-loaded, concentrating more on planning than on implementation, and especially the spatial implications of planning (i.e., zoning of one type or another). Tundi is president of Sound Seas and co-author of Ocean Zoning: Making Marine Management More Effective (Routledge, 2010).
This was the first live debate hosted by OpenChannels. The hour-long event was conducted by typing and reading text - there was no audio component. Audience members were able to post comments in response to Tundi and Bud’s arguments as the debate was occurring, and Tundi and Bud addressed those comments as they wished. All participants were able to view all posts - nothing was confidential.
The following are the debate archives. Comments from Bud, Tundi, and the moderator (John Davis, OpenChannels Project Supervisor) appear first, with comments from the audience at the bottom.
Comments from the Debaters and Moderator
Bud Ehler: Ocean zoning should be an integral part of MSP just as it is on land, where zoning is an integral part of comprehensive city or regional planning. Zoning maps and regulations are the principal tool for implementing comprehensive plans. It’s is an important tool in the MSP toolkit—but not the only one. Zoning is not planning—or land or in the sea. We already zone the sea without planning for other uses or nature—and the result many times is chaos. Marine zoning without marine planning is short-sighted.
Tundi Agardy: An (unnamed) official once told me that MSP in the US will never result in any lines drawn on any maps – demonstrating both a misplaced fear of zoning, and cowardice. Interesting to note too that the newly released National Ocean Policy replaces MSP with “marine planning”.
Tundi Agardy: Unless the US and other governments use the investments made in planning to highlight where the important, vulnerable, and sacrificial areas are, and produces systematic, common sense maps showing the compromises that move MSP to zoning, there will be no more need for marine planning – we’ll be on the slippery slope to ecosystem collapse.
Bud Ehler: Fortunately there are many more models than just the US
Tundi Agardy: Yes, I agree Bud. There are lots of places that do planning AND zoning!
Bud Ehler: Planning and zoning can be very effective, however, there are too many examples of zoning without planning
Tundi Agardy: I don’t disagree with you, Bud – there is great value in processes that allow us to look at (and value) what uses of the sea and coast currently exist, and what future scenarios might unfold. But we’ve got to stop being afraid of putting what we know down on maps, and of using our considerable social and natural science understanding from highlighting areas that we need to protect as top priorities.
Bud Ehler: We already zone areas of the ocean for oil & gas leases, navigation, dump sites for dredged materials, fishing closure areas, wind farms—often without integrated planning across these activities, without consideration of ecologically valuable areas, and without consideration of cumulative effects. A number of MSP programs have been started because of existing conflicts among various uses of the marine environment or between human uses and nature due to a lack of planning.
Tundi Agardy: Again, I agree. I guess my push is for comprehensive planning (larger areas than MPAs or shipping lanes or coastal zones), followed by zoning that can and should be amended over time.
Bud Ehler: let's not agree too much, too early. I still say that marine spatial planning and ocean zoning are not the same. Marine spatial planning is not zoning. Zoning is only one tool in the MSP toolkit with which to implement MSP. MSP has been implemented effectively without zoning. And I will talk about how it’s been implemented in Norway and Germany and, is evolving in England—without zoning.
Tundi Agardy: This will be my last agreement: MSP and zoning are not the same. But MSP without zoning is wasted time and effort, and allows governments to pretend they are dealing effectively with use of oceans and coasts.
Bud Ehler: And I'll get to the reverse model where zoning is doing without comprehensive, strategic planning--and that would be the Great Barrier Reef!
Tundi Agardy: Wouldn't you call the development of the operating principles for the rezoning, and the outlook reporting (i.e. scenario development) MSP? I think GBR is an example of MSP resulting in zoning, resulting in further planning, in a continual loop -- a very positive example.
Bud Ehler: More on that in a few minutes. Another point on the difference between planning and zoning--Zoning on land is not a statement of policy, but a reflection of hundreds and even thousands of decisions made over many years. Zoning is a regulatory tool. It usually consists of a zoning map and related zoning regulations or ordinances. Zoning standards and regulations help to ensure that people do not have costs imposed upon them by their neighbors. Due to their legal basis, zoning changes once made are often difficult to change
Bud Ehler: Land use plans usually involve maps in a report identifying where activities should take place; they are not the same as zoning maps and regulations
Tundi Agardy: But we have dominant use "zoning" in large protected areas on land, not just municipal zoning which is what I think you're alluding to here. And I would argue that zoning changes (which are required, given the sea is a very dynamic environment) may be easier than resource allocations (fish quotas, etc.). And zoning can help with separating conflicting /incompatible uses.
Bud Ehler: I agree. Zoning as the principal tool with which to implement marine spatial planning is a distinctly North American (and Australian) idea. The Norwegian integrated management plans for the Barents and Norwegian seas do not use the term “zoning”; they do talk about exclusive economic zones and coastal zones, and even safety zones around petroleum operations and traffic separation zones, but no zoning maps or regulations.
John Davis: from Ben.Reder: I would like to hear about the benefits of implementing MSP w/o zoning? What's the point? What were the key outcomes?
Bud Ehler: Plans can be implemented through permitting, for example, that is consistent with the general maps laid out in the marine spatial plans; that's what Norway does, for example, without a formal zoning plan
Tundi Agardy: I don’t understand how a zone around an oil rig, or a multiple use coastal zone, as you describe in Norway, is not a zoning map. In fact, I included the Norwegian zoning map in my book on Ocean Zoning! Are we just arguing semantics?
Bud Ehler: The Marine Policy Statement of the UK, the framework for MSP, talks about marine conservation zones, but not zoning per se. The German marine spatial plans for the North and Baltic seas talk about safety zones and security zones, mainly for shipping, but not zoning. The new draft Directive of the European Commission establishing a framework for MSP and coastal zone management does not refer to use zones or zoning. Marine spatial planning can be and has been implemented without zoning.
Bud Ehler: It's partly semantic, but also important for general acceptance of these ideas by the general public--who only have experience with land zoning which is regulatory
Tundi Agardy: What seems to be missing from your examples (and which I would still call zoning, even if you do not) is the element of ecologically critical areas that need protection. This may end up being a shortcoming in the EU's MSP directive too. But other places practice zoning that reconcile conservation + development...
John Davis: from Guest638: The U.S. policy may not mention "zoning," but it says that it "will further enable evaluation of trade-offs between alternative management scenarios." How will this not inevitably involve zoning at some point?
Bud Ehler: Zoning is only one of the many spatial management tools used in the GBR, and it’s not necessarily the most effective way to manage all ocean activities, according to Jon Day of the GBRMPA. Some activities are better managed using other spatial and temporal tools, including:
- Permits, often tied to specific areas within zones
- Statutory management plans
- Site plans/special management areas
- Other spatial restrictions, e.g., defense training areas
- Best environmental practice/codes of practice
John Davis: from Katie Lassiter: Could you each provide your definition of "zoning"? I think that would be helpful for the conversation.
Bud Ehler: Zoning is a regulatory tool. It usually consists of a zoning map and related zoning regulations or ordinances. Zoning standards and regulations help to ensure that people do not have costs imposed upon them by their neighbors.
Bud Ehler: It's not different in the sea
Tundi Agardy: In answer to Guest 638, I think it is curious that the US in its final release of the ocean policy took "spatial" out of the text describing MSP. This is a pretext, I believe, for avoiding zoning - or increased regulation, protection, or management of any type!
Bud Ehler: The GBR, for example, has a zoning map and about 1,000 pages of regulations!
Bud Ehler: But no strategic plan
Tundi Agardy: Zoning in my definition is the articulation of what uses are appropriate or permissible where, and what degree of use allows compatibility with other uses. In fact all marine management is spatial, and zoning just lays our regulatory framework on the table for all to see.
John Davis: from ShawnMacDonald: So is zoning a process or an instrument?
Bud Ehler: Shawn, zoning is a tool to implement MSP
Bud Ehler: But the "regulatory framework" goes beyond simple zoning approaches
Tundi Agardy: So I think Bud is saying you cannot have implementation of good marine spatial plans without ocean zoning - phew! I also see Ocean Zoning as a way to reconcile conservation and development, increase efficiencies in monitoring, surveillance, enforcement, and decrease the potential for conflict among users with different motivations.
Bud Ehler: Despite having an effective zoning system, the GBRMP has no long-term management plan. This lack of a strategic approach has recently been pointed out by UNESCO’s World Heritage Center in a recent report on the impacts of port development and increased shipping pressures on the GBR. Specifically, UNESCO noted that the GBR “…lacks an overall plan…that will protect its Outstanding Universal Value and ensure its ecological integrity while simultaneously achieving sustainable economic and social goals.”
Bud Ehler: And the GBRMPA is now--after 30 years--developing a strategic plan
John Davis: from Salomon Diaz Mondragon: Charles, but it seems Tundi idea of "zoning" is beyond the regulations or ordinances
Bud Ehler: Salomon: other way around; MSP can use zoning for its implementation
Tundi Agardy: I believe the shortcoming of the GBR management has less to do with 'zoning without planning' and more to do with zoning AND planning that is not comprehensive enough - not covering land use, and not aiming for wider societal goals.
John Davis: from Julia Townsend: Is it just that zoning is implementation of spatial plans through regulation? What are the other options? Incentives? Permits? Community buy-in?
Tundi Agardy: Julia I also see real potential for building into ocean zoning the foundation for true EBM (linking land use – and zoning! – to watershed management, coastal management, and marine management). There is also real potential to build sustainable financing for conservation and management into MSP through zoning – having zones that are protected to provide ecosystem services ‘for sale’ to beneficiaries.
Bud Ehler: Julia: see my response “Zoning is only one of the many spatial management tools used in the GBR…”
John Davis: from Sheck: Speaking from some experience, zoning practices on land are often the result of economic factors mixed with highest/best use principals. Conservation easements are popular where the owners of large private wild-lands keep it wild or green via tax incentives or conversions to trusts. Will MSP and/or Marine Zoning allow for privately owned waters that the owners can exploit or conserve based on their ideology and economic interests? Thanks!
Bud Ehler: Sheck: Marine areas and their resources are publicly owned, not privately (admittedly there are a few exceptions in some parts of the world)
John Davis: from david.beauchesne: Any project without a plan is more likely to fail, yet I doubt this is the goal of the debate. Rather, can you in fact do MSP w/o zoning resulting in effective preservation and management of both ecological and socioeconomic values?
Bud Ehler: David B: Yes, and its being done in Norway
Tundi Agardy: We can build zoning on use rights, since most marine waters are commons of one form or another. But to your pointed question, Sheck: this has to happen under strong leadership that looks to the collective interest of the populace.
Bud Ehler: Norway is actually one of the few examples of MSP that have "successfully" integrated fishing, oil & gas, marine transport, and nature conservation in an integrated plan--that is being implemented
John Davis: from KittyCurrier: Is MSP considered a regulatory tool? Why or why not?
Bud Ehler: Kitty: MSP can be regulatory (Massachusetts and Germany) or strategic and advisory (Norway) that relies on existing authorities for implementation (consistent with the plan)
John Davis: from Sarah Carr: Tundi, Bud mentions the activities below as potentially better ways to manage than zoning. But would you consider a spatial plan in which all areas were subject to one of these (permits, spatial management plan, site plan, best practices, etc.) zoning? I would
Tundi Agardy: Yes, I definitely would consider the regulatory matrix you describe, laid out in a spatial fashion, as zoning. And as Bud said, we already do marine zoning that covers a lot of different uses and regulations!
Tundi Agardy: What we don't do enough of is comprehensive and systematic ocean zoning, to reconcile conservation and development (the recipe for sustainability, after all).
John Davis: from david.beauchesne: In such an integrated management plan, what are the measures of success?
Bud Ehler: David: That's an excellent question and one that is not very well specified in any plan (or zoning map); sometime simply the completion of the plan is a "success"; more realistically many measures of success won't be seen for 5, 10, 15 years
John Davis: from ShawnMacDonald: My question to clarify as zoning being a process or instrument was sort of a loaded question. On land, planners rely on pre-existing boundaries to strategically determine appropriate uses, but in the marine realm, boundaries often need to be defined. This speaks to more of a process than it does a 'tool'.
Tundi Agardy: Shawn- regarding zoning as a process or a tool - I think MSP is the process that results in a map, and attached to that map (zones) are a whole lot of 'permissive activities' that are the focus of management. In the fluid environment, boundaries may be harder to determine, but they are there! (cont.)
Bud Ehler: But I would say this is analysis for MSP, i.e., determining ecologically or biologically important areas, not all of which might eventually become MPAs
Bud Ehler: That's the situation in England, where many more important areas were defined than will ever become Marine Conservation Zones (their term)
Bud Ehler: MSP is a process; zoning is a tool in the toolbox
Tundi Agardy: Boundaries are clear in the minds of users, and we have permitting that allows certain uses in certain places. Fishers understand boundaries, not always related to the benthos, and as Jeff Ardron said earlier, boundaries can also exist in 3D...
John Davis: from Julia Townsend: Bud: With all due respect, I am having trouble understanding how permitting, statutory management plans and other legal restrictions are not regulatory in nature. How are you defining regulation? Would a better question be whether plans can be enforced through existing legal instruments or not?
Bud Ehler: Of course they are regulatory. And plans can be enforced through existing authorities and instruments (which is what Norway, England, and other countries are doing)
Bud Ehler: Their marine spatial plans are not regulatory or enforceable in and of themselves
Tundi Agardy: But not very successfully, Bud - at least not to date!
Bud Ehler: But England is just beginning its MSP process; a little early to tell if it is working or not; they don't have one approved plan yet
Tundi Agardy: Bud- I believe the reason the UK identified many more marine conservation zones than they appear willing to protect is because environment is at a disadvantage when faltering economies are used as an excuse not to take action.
Bud Ehler: The Marine Conservation Zone planning process was not handled well; expectations were that whatever scientists thought were important would be accepted by government; a little naive?
Tundi Agardy: Shawn I would call Ocean Zoning the last great hope for the last great common. There is nothing about zoning that implies "privatization" - on the contrary zoning can be used to codify community rights, and allow for stewardship in safeguarding marine ecosystem services for the benefit of all.
John Davis: Bud and Tundi are preparing their summary statements now.
Bud Ehler: Zoning is without question an important tool for implementing marine spatial plans. But zoning is not planning. However, to be effective zoning must be periodically reviewed to take into account:
- Rapidly increasing use of marine areas and resources
- Technological change
- Changes in economic and political conditions
- Climate change and other threats to marine life (e.g., acidification)
- Changes in the use of time and space by marine life
In other words, marine planning must be adaptive
Bud Ehler: These can be best addressed through a continuing, strategic, and adaptive process of marine spatial planning
Tundi Agardy: I'd summarize by saying we need planning, and we to be sure we don't just end there. MSP without ocean zoning is a cop-out, in my opinion. And zoning that isn't comprehensive, and doesn't address both conservation and development, is also ineffective, and may be a waste of effort as well.
John Davis: With that, we wrap up this debate. Thank you, Bud and Tundi, for doing this! And thank you to the audience for a lively discussion in the left-hand panel. If anyone in the audience has further questions for Bud or Tundi, you are invited to communicate with them directly at charles [dot] ehler [at] mac [dot] com and tundiagardy [at] earthlink [dot] net. Best, John
Comments from the Audience
Permana Yudiarso: Mr Charles Ehler, i am permana yudiarso from Indonesia
Permana Yudiarso: Indonesia is implementing the law on coastal and small islands management that stipulated marine spatial planning called rencana zonasi wilayah pesisir dan pulau-pulau kecil
Permana Yudiarso: we acknowledge zoning plan as marine spatial planning, but, my understanding is zoning is differ from MSP, zoning is a part of MSP
Ben.Reder: Since the ocean is a 3-dimensional (3-D) space....has anyone ever heard of a MSP effort that integrated 3D zoning?
Salomon Diaz Mondragon: Mr. Charles, do you think "Marine Spatial Planning" includes "ocean zoning" or is beyond that concept?
jardron: Re 3D: only a bit... The Law of the Sea treats the seabed differently from the water column. Fisheries closures are sometimes by depth. For instance, the New Zealand Benthic Protected Areas do allow pelagic fishing, but not within 100 m of the bottom. (How they enforce that is a mystery to me!)
Guest916: Are there any spatial limits in applying zoning/MSP? How one would approach MSP for large marine ecosystems spanning different countries or even in areas beyond national jurisdiction? Thank you for your views.
Adelaide: Adding to that last question, do you think it is necessary in cross border plans, to actually define borders for those plans or that ensuring that there is spatial coherence/consistency between them and appropriate cross-border governance mechanisms is enough? Thank you
ironelk: With each state having their own MSP and no patroling of the coast line how will anyone be able to enforce MSP if it becomes part of the CZMA?
Permana Yudiarso: agree with Bud, zoning is one tool of MSP
mhuber: How would you deal with conflicting jurisdictional issues? Would zoning require a change in federal law?
Permana Yudiarso: in Indonesia, every coastal areas (provinces, municipalities, regencies) must have a msp, it differs each other, but should be strong in coordination among users
Permana Yudiarso: agree with Tundi,
Ben.Reder: I would like to hear about the benefits of implementing MSP w/o zoning? What's the point? What were the key outcomes?
Guest638: The U.S. policy may not mention "zoning," but it says that it "will further enable evaluation of trade-offs between alternative management scenarios." How will this not inevitably involve zoning at some point?
Ben.Reder: Ok...but that seems like informal zoning?
ironelk: My understanding from the NOC is that MSP will not create additional regulations but use what is there. If we start zoning is this not additional regulations?
Salomon Diaz Mondragon: For Tundi: Please write more about this idea: "..zoning can help with separating conflicting /incompatible uses"
jardron: Most marine industrial activities need permitting anyway... If the permitting takes into account negotiated spatial zones, that is not additional regulation.
Guest638: That is too bad. The public deserves an open and honest discussion about what we are dealing with hear, not semantics.
Adelaide: so, would you say that land use is a statement of fact, whereas zoning results from planning (or just the opposite, or none of the above?)
Katie Lassiter: Could you each provide your definition of "zoning"? I think that would be helpful for the conversation.
Ben.Reder: I agree :)
david.beauchesne: Me too, Tundi seems right in stating that they are arguing semantics at the moment.
Salomon Diaz Mondragon: I also agree!
Salomon Diaz Mondragon: It seems a "semantic" issue.
Guest916: Tundi Agardy: I don’t understand how a zone around an oil rig, or a multiple use coastal zone, as you describe in Norway, is not a zoning map. In fact, I included the Norwegian zoning map in my book on Ocean Zoning! Are we just arguing semantics? - DIFFICULT TO DISAGREE WITH THE LAST QUESTION/STATEMENT. IT SEEMS BOTH, WILLIAM AND TUNDI USE THE TERM 'ZONING' IN THE CONTEXT OF MAPPING. IT'S HARDLY POSSIBLE TO IMAGINE ANY MSP EXERCISE WITHOUT MAPPING AND AS SUCH ZONING.
Sheck: Speaking from some experience, zoning practices on land are often the result of economic factors mixed with highest/best use principals. Conservation easements are popular where the owners of large private wild-lands keep it wild or green via tax incentives or conversions to trusts. Will MSP and/or Marine Zoning allow for privately owned waters that the owners can exploit or conserve based on their ideology and economic interests? Thanks!
ShawnMacDonald: So is zoning a process or an instrument?
Permana Yudiarso: zoning is a function of such activities defined by stakeholders
Guest916: ONE COULD ALSO ARGUE FOR THE REVERSE THAT ANY ZONING EFFORT IS AN ATTEMPT TO START MSP WHICH IS BOTH PLANNING AND IMPLEMENTATION
Salomon Diaz Mondragon: Charles, but it seems Tundi idea of "zoning" is beyond the regulations or ordinances
Permana Yudiarso: zoning consists of direction what can be done and can't i think, say zone of mining area consists of area determine to mining activities, so it has a specific function
Permana Yudiarso: yes, it is a regulatory tool as it can be used to control spatially and would also temporarily
Guest638: Tundi, the appendix to the final plan suggests that "marine planning" may also be semantics, as there are still references to "Coastal and Marine Spatial Planning actions
Salomon Diaz Mondragon: Charles: how can MSP implement zoning?
Ben.Reder: Comprehensive MSP.
Guest638: Not to mention the Executive Order
Julia Townsend: Is it just that zoning is implementation of spatial plans through regulation? What are the other options? Incentives? Permits? Community buy-in?
Permana Yudiarso: what do yo mean by comprehensive msp
david.beauchesne: Any project without a plan is more likely to fail, yet I doubt this is the goal of the debate. Rather, can you in fact do MSP w/o zoning resulting in effective preservation and management of both ecological and socioeconomic values?
KittyCurrier: Is MSP considered a regulatory tool? Why or why not?
ironelk: It will be if it becomes part of the CZMA.
GBNERR: What are the enforceable authorities that make Norway's plan work?
Adelaide: and yet Norway's marine spatial plan ends 1 nautical mile off the coast. Can MSP be successful without a clear connection to land?
Sarah Carr: Tundi, Bud mentions the activities below as potentially better ways to manage than zoning. But would you consider a spatial plan in which all areas were subject to one of these (permits, spatial management plan, site plan, best practices, etc.) zoning? I would
david.beauchesne: In such an integrated management plan, what are the measures of success?
ShawnMacDonald: My question to clarify as zoning being a process or instrument was sort of a loaded question. On land, planners rely on pre-existing boundaries to strategically determine appropriate uses, but in the marine realm, boundaries often need to be defined. This speaks to more of a process than it does a 'tool'.
Ben.Reder: Can Charles and Tundi debate a little about the Norway situation...Charles says this is a good example of MSP w/o Zoning....Tundi used Norway as an example of zoning, etc.
Guest638: What examples exist where msp has been implemented without legislative authority?
abck: If I understand correctly, Germany & Norway have management plans that define rules for interactions of various (all?) user groups with a specified area (Baltic Sea, North Sea), giving spatial status to some areas within this area (safety zones etc).
abck: So it seems, that they use a very coarse zoning (one large area and a few exceptions). If this is correct (perhaps not?), wouldn't the issue be one of SCALING? How large a marine area can you manage with just one dominant zone? Could it be applied for the whole Coral Triangle? The whole GBR (ideally incl. the land-sea interface)?
jardron: Re Norway: planning extends far offshore (not just 1 nm as suggested above). See for example: http://www.vasab.org/files/documents/events/2MSP_WG/2MSP_WG_NoMSP&Ecosys...
Salomon Diaz Mondragon: Charles, following the "success" idea, I think "monitoring" is the key, and is related to the indicators and framework of your book "A Handbook for measuring the progress and outcomes of integrated Coastal and Ocean Management"
Julia Townsend: Bud: With all due respect, I am having trouble understanding how permitting, statutory management plans and other legal restrictions are not regulatory in nature. How are you defining regulation? Would a better question be whether plans can be enforced through existing legal instruments or not?
Permana Yudiarso: large scale marine planning is like what NGOs said seascape in the coral triangle
Adelaide: I meant the landward boundary of the plan is 1 nm from the baseline, so not directly contacting with the coast
david.beauchesne: Would it not then be far more interesting to use, as part of MSP, the process and monitoring needed to create a zoning plan evolving through time as knowledge accumulates and marine areas change, to provide an efficient way evaluating the success of the management plan?
Guest97: Fishers have to understand 2D and 3D boundaries as many regulations are based on where you are and how depth you can legally fish
ironelk: To answer Julia Townsend: they can be enforced through existing authorities and instruments unless MSP expands the areas that are delineated now; then who will enforce those additional areas?
Sheck: Fol-up Q: Since we have arrived at the point in history where a significant area of the world’s seas need to be planned/zoned due to increasing human demands for the finite resources and the need for diverse wild-life to continue in the seas, should we not consider private ownership via MSP/Zoning, especially if the goal is ecological conservation (e.g. no trespassing for X years, enforced privately), and the taxes collected on private waters can pay for rehab of public waters damaged by over-exploitation?
ShawnMacDonald: Is ocean zoning the demise of the last great 'common'?
jardron: The tragedy of the commons is only superseded by the tragedy of privatization!
GBNERR: Until case law and precedent muck up the best plans and intentions, anyway.
Katie Lassiter: How does a management authority account for new uses (ocean energy, offshore aquaculture, research, cables, etc) in ocean zoning?
Sarah Carr: Thank you so much to Bud and Tundi for a great debate. Are there any other topics people would like to see future OpenChannels.org debates on?
Ben.Reder: THANKS! This was a great idea and fun as well!!
Permana Yudiarso: it must be revised
Salomon Diaz Mondragon: Thanks!!!
Permana Yudiarso: hope can contact to all of you
Salomon Diaz Mondragon: Please send us information about future debates!
Sheck: Thanks - great to see progress, especially as it relates to eco-based management/planning/zoning.
Adelaide: I would like to see a discussion on Ecosystem-based management applied to ocean management. Thanks for this debate
david.beauchesne: I would like to see a debate on the consideration of both social, economic and cultural attributes alongside ecological attributes of a marine area in MSP
ShawnMacDonald: Thanks to the organizers and debaters. Very interesting discussion.